Fertility and hormones
A prolonged excessive imbalance of hormones can cause reduced fertility, and that is a risk for sterility.
Low levels of LH and FSH, usually as a result of high levels of prolactin, cause diminished fertility. Both progesterone and prolactin are capable of pausing the menstrual cycle for pregnancy or nursing, as are also their roles in the luteal phase. High progesterone and prolactin, with the absence of LH, FSH, and possibly androgens cause symptoms consistent with shrinkage of the ovaries. Estrogenic compounds in the presence of high prolactin and progesterone, in the absence of LH and FSH, further reduce fertility. In cases of ovarian shrinkage, reduced fertility can often be reversed, until if sterility occurs. An imbalance of low estrogen levels is consistent with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), and it is uncertain if this is related to what is described above.
Infertility due to hormones are not limited to progesterone and prolactin excesses. PCOS and endometriosis (uterine tissue growing outside the uterus) are also associated with infertility.
Severe PCOS can cause damage to the ovaries. PCOS is consistent with abnormally high LH and androgen levels, which are consistent with low levels of prolactin. It is uncertain whether estrogen conversion contributes to or alleviates PCOS.
Progesterone deficiency or insensitivity of the reproductive tract, and abnormally high levels of bodily estrogen contribute to endometriosis. Severe endometriosis may block passage ways needed for fertilization.
There may be other hormonal imbalances that cause reproductive changes which contribute to lack of fertility. Not all infertility cases can be determined by symptoms of menstrual irregularity.
This is an excerpt. Read breast-endocrinology.pdf or super-bazongas.pdf for more.
- Infertility fact sheet. Office of Women’s health. https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/infertility.html.
- R. Lobo, KA Martin. Infertility and Women. Hormone Health Network. January, 2012. 4th ed. https://www.hormone.org/~/media/Hormone/Files/Questions%20and%20Answers/Women/FS_MWH_Infertility_Women_EN%20612.pdf.
- Diseases and Conditions that Influence Fertility. NICHD. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/Pages/health-factors.aspx.
- Endometriosis. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/endometriosis/home/ovc-20236421.
- Progesterone Alleviates Endometriosis via Inhibition of Uterine Cell Proliferation, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27776183.
- Estrogen and progesterone receptor subtype expression in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603724.
- Novel three dimensional human endocervix cultures respond to 28-day hormone treatment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635622.
- Shao R, Cao S, Wang X, Feng Y, Billig H. The elusive and controversial roles of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human endometriosis. Am J Transl Res. 2014; 6(2): 104-113. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902220/.
- Super Bazongas. https://breast.is/ebook/super-bazongas.pdf.