This is about estrogen modulation, estrogen response, estrogen receptor sensitivity, estrogen deficiency, and estrogen excess. See the general blog for the latest updates.
Signs of estrogen deficiency, estrogen receptor desensitization or lowered estrogen response include hot-flashes, hirsutism, alcopecia and itchy skin. High body temperature typically occurs with hot-flashes. Estrogen deficiency is commonly associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), high luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin insensitivity.
Estrogen deficiency program journal
For personal programs of increasing estrogen and estrogen response, see hirsutism01, hirsutism02 and hirsutism03.
Signs of estrogen excess can include headache, low body temperature and heavy menstruation. Endometriosis is a concern of excess estrogen.
Receptor and enzyme modulation
From anecdoctal evidence, it seems that when aromatase enzymes, estrogen receptors or androgen receptors are sensitized in the presence of androgenic (testosterone) prominence, estrogen deficiency symptoms increase.
Aromatase is the conversion of androgens, with the exception of DHT, into estrogens.
It happens that aromatase enzymes occur in tissue where Estrogen Receptors alpha (α) and beta (β) are present. This cellular tissue includes: ovaries, corpus luteum, uterus, breast, adrenal glands, liver, skin, muscle, bone and fatty tissue. The capability for androgen conversion into estrogen in granulosa cells within the ovaries is very important for reproductive health.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in small amounts increases aromatase synthesis, but it requires other hormones for maintaining hormone sensitivity and hormone balance.
Estrogen receptor modulation
It seems that estrogen receptor, especially ERβ, upregulation during a heavy balance of androgens increases androgenic imbalance further.
DHT is a strong hormone that downregulates androgen receptors. Surprisingly, in small amounts, androgens, including DHT, can resensitize aromatase enzymes in mammals (unlike in birds and in fish). However, the outcome is likely conditional in the presence of estrogen and progesterone.
Breast enhancement; health blog
- Modulation of Aromatase by Phytoestrogens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699002/.
- Androgens upregulate cyp19a1b (aromatase B) gene expression in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) through estrogen receptors. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129512.
- The endocrinology of the menstrual cycle. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782009.
- Ovarian follicular and luteal physiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6248477.
- Gonadotrophic control of follicular development and function during the oestrous cycle of the ewe. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6300383.
- Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528347/.