Signs of estrogen deficiency include hot-flashes, hirsutism, alcopecia and itchy skin. Estrogen deficiency is commonly associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), high luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin insensitivity.
Receptor and Enzyme Modulation
From anecdoctal evidence, it seems that when aromatase enzymes, estrogen receptors or androgen receptors are sensitized in the presence of andogenic prominence, estrogen deficiency symptoms increase.
It happens that aromatase enzymes occur in tissue where Estrogen Receptors alpha (α) and beta (β) are present. This cellular tissue includes: ovaries, corpus luteum, uterus, breast, adrenal glands, liver, skin, muscle, bone and fatty tissue. The capability for androgen conversion into estrogen in granulosa cells within the ovaries is very important for reproductive health.
Mint is an aromtase inhibitor that reduces estrogen conversion capacity when used in large amounts. In small amounts, however, mint increases aromatase. This is expected for other aromatase inhibitors. It is possible that small amounts of other aromatase inhibitors upregulate aromatase enzymes.
Because aromatase capacity of granulosa cells is important for health, mint, clover and pueraria should be used in minimal amounts.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in small amounts increases aromatase synthesis. Estrogen and FSH together develop the follicle during the first half of the menstrual cycle. Estrogen, inhibitin and luteinizing inhibitor (LI) together have their roles on the follicle during menstruation and proliferative phase.
DHT is a strong hormone that downregulates androgen receptors. Surprisingly, in small amounts, androgens, including DHT, can resensitize aromatase enzymes in mammals (unlike in birds and in fish).
It seems that estrogen receptor, especially ER-beta, upregulation during a heavy balance of androgens increases androgenic imbalance further.
Estrogen Deficiency Blog
For a personal program of increasing estrogen, see hirsutism.
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- Modulation of Aromatase by Phytoestrogens. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4699002/.
- Androgens upregulate cyp19a1b (aromatase B) gene expression in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) through estrogen receptors. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129512.
- The endocrinology of the menstrual cycle. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782009.
- Ovarian follicular and luteal physiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6248477.
- Gonadotrophic control of follicular development and function during the oestrous cycle of the ewe. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6300383.